E.3. VK_KHR_swapchain

Name String
VK_KHR_swapchain
Extension Type
Device extension
Registered Extension Number
2
Last Modified Date
04/05/2016
Revision
68
IP Status
No known IP claims.
Dependencies
  • This extension is written against revision 1.0 of the Vulkan API.
  • This extension requires VK_KHR_surface.
Contributors
  • Patrick Doane, Blizzard
  • Ian Elliott, LunarG
  • Jesse Hall, Google
  • Mathias Heyer, NVIDIA
  • James Jones, NVIDIA
  • David Mao, AMD
  • Norbert Nopper, Freescale
  • Alon Or-bach, Samsung
  • Daniel Rakos, AMD
  • Graham Sellers, AMD
  • Jeff Vigil, Qualcomm
  • Chia-I Wu, LunarG
  • Jason Ekstrand, Intel
  • Matthaeus G. Chajdas, AMD
  • Ray Smith, ARM
Contacts
  • James Jones, NVIDIA
  • Ian Elliott, LunarG

The VK_KHR_swapchain extension is the device-level companion to the VK_KHR_surface extension. It introduces VkSwapchainKHR objects, which provide the ability to present rendering results to a surface.

E.3.1. New Object Types

  • VkSwapchainKHR

E.3.2. New Enum Constants

  • Extending VkStructureType:

    • VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SWAPCHAIN_CREATE_INFO_KHR
    • VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PRESENT_INFO_KHR
  • Extending VkImageLayout:

    • VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SRC_KHR
  • Extending VkResult:

    • VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR
    • VK_ERROR_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR

E.3.3. New Enums

None

E.3.4. New Structures

E.3.5. New Functions

E.3.6. Issues

1) Does this extension allow the application to specify the memory backing of the presentable images?

RESOLVED: No.  Unlike standard images, the implementation will
allocate the memory backing of the presentable image.

2) What operations are allowed on presentable images?

RESOLVED: This is determined by the imageUsageFlags specified
when creating the presentable image's swapchain.

3) Does this extension support MSAA presentable images?

RESOLVED: No.  Presentable images are always single-sampled.
Multi-sampled rendering must use regular images.  To present the
rendering results the application must manually resolve the multi-
sampled image to a single-sampled presentable image prior to
presentation.

4) Does this extension support stereo/multi-view presentable images?

RESOLVED: Yes.  The number of views associated with a presentable
image is determined by the imageArraySize specified when creating
a swapchain.  All presentable images in a given swapchain use
the same array size.

5) Are the layers of stereo presentable images half-sized?

RESOLVED: No.  The image extents always match those requested
by the applicaton.

6) Do the "present" and "acquire next image" commands operate on a queue? If not, do they need to include explicit semaphore objects to interlock them with queue operations?

RESOLVED: The present command operates on a queue.  The image
ownership operation it represents happens in order with other
operations on the queue, so no explicit semaphore object is
required to synchronize its actions.  Applications may want to
acquire the next image in separate threads from those in which
they manage their queue, or in multiple threads.  To make such
usage easier, the acquire next image command takes a semaphore
to signal as a method of explicit synchronizatoin.  The
application must later queue a wait for this semaphore before
queuing execution of any commands using the image.

7) Does vkAcquireNextImageKHR() block if no images are available?

RESOLVED: The command takes a timeout parameter.  Special values
for the timeout are 0, which makes the call a non-blocking
operation, and UINT64_MAX, which blocks indefinitely.  Values in
between will block for up to the specified time.  The call will
return when an image becomes available or an error occurs.  It
may, but is not required to, return before the specified timeout
expires if the swapchain becomes out of date.

8) Can multiple presents be queued using one QueuePresent call?

RESOLVED: Yes.  VkPresentInfoKHR contains a list of swapchains
and corresponding image indices that will be presented.  When
supported, all presentations queued with a single vkQueuePresentKHR
call will be applied atomically as one operation.  The same swapchain
must not appear in the list more than once.  Later extensions may
provide applications stronger guarantees of atomicity for such present
operations, and/or allow them to query whether atomic presentation of a
particular group of swapchains is possible.

9) How do the presentation and acquire next image functions notify the application the targeted surface has changed?

RESOLVED: Two new result codes are introduced for this purpose:
VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR - Presentation will still succeed, subject to the
window resize behavior, but the swapchain is no longer configured
optimally for the surface it targets.  Applications should query
updated surface information and recreate their swapchain at the next
convenient opportunity.
VK_ERROR_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR - Failure.  The swapchain is no longer
compatible with the surface it targets.  The application must
query updated surface information and recreate the swapchain
before presentation will succeed.
These can be returned by both vkAcquireNextImageKHR and
vkQueuePresentKHR.

10) Does the vkAcquireNextImageKHR command return a semaphore to the application via an output parameter, or accept a semaphore to signal from the application as an object handle parameter?

RESOLVED: Accept a semahpore to signal as an object handle.  This
avoids the need to specify whether the application must destroy
the semaphore or whether it is owned by the swapchain, and if
the latter, what its lifetime is and whether it can be re-used
for other operations once it is received from
vkAcquireNextImageKHR.

11) What types of swapchain queuing behavior should be exposed? Options include swap interval specification, mailbox/most recent Vs. FIFO queue management, targeting specific vertical blank intervals or absolute times for a given present opeation, and probably others. For some of these, whether they are specified at swapchain creation time or as per-present parameters needs to be decided as well.

RESOLVED: The base swapchain extension will expose 3 possible
behaviors (of which, FIFO will always be supported):
-Immediate present: Does not wait for vertical blanking period to
 update the current image, likely resulting in visible tearing.
 No internal queue is used.  Present requests are applied
 immediately.
-Mailbox queue: Waits for the next vetical blanking period to
 update the current image.  No tearing should be observed.  An
 internal single-entry queue is used to hold pending presentation
 requests.  If the queue is full when a new presentation
 request is received, the new request replaces the existing entry,
 and any images associated with the prior entry become available
 for re-use by the application.
-FIFO queue: Waits for the next vertical blanking period to update
 the current image.  No tearing should be observed.  An internal
 queue containing (numSwapchainImages - 1) entries is used to
 hold pending presentation requests.  New requests are appended to
 the end of the queue, and one request is removed from the beginning
 of the queue and processed during each vertical blanking period in
 which the queue is non-empty
Not all surfaces will support all of these modes, so the modes
supported will be returned using a surface info query.  All
surfaces must support the FIFO queue mode.  Applications must choose
one of these modes up front when creating a swapchain.  Switching
modes can be accomplished by recreating the swapchain.

12) Can VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR provide non-blocking guarantees for vkAcquireNextImageKHR()? If so, what is the proper criteria?

RESOLVED: Yes.  The difficulty is not immediately obvious here.
Naively, if at least 3 images are requested, mailbox mode should
always have an image available for the application if the application
does not own any images when the call to vkAcquireNextImageKHR() was
made.  However, some presentation engines may have more than one
"current" image, and would still need to block in some cases.  The
right requirement appears to be that if the application allocates the
surface's minimum number of images + 1 then it is guaranteed non-
blocking behavior when it does not currently own any images.

13) Is there a way to create and initialize a new swapchain for a surface that has generated a VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR return code while still using the old swapchain?

RESOLVED: Not as part of this specification.  This could be useful to
allow the application to create an "optimal" replacement swapchain
and rebuild all its command buffers using it in a background thread at
a low priority while continuing to use the "suboptimal" swapchain in
the main thread.  It could probably use the same "atomic replace"
semantics proposed for recreating direct-to-device swapchains without
incuring a mode switch.  However, after discussion, it was determined
some platforms probably could not support concurrent swapchains for
the same surface though, so this will be left out of the base KHR
extensions.  A future extension could add this for platfroms where it
is supported.

14) Should there be a special value for VkSurfacePropertiesKHR::maxImageCount to indicate there are no practical limits on the number of images in a swapchain?

RESOLVED: Yes.  There where often be cases where there is no practical
limit to the number of images in a swapchain other than the amount of
available resources (I.e., memory) in the system.  Trying to derive a
hard limit from things like memory size is prone to failure.  It is
better in such cases to leave it to applications to figure such soft
limits out via trial/failure iterations.

15) Should there be a special value for VkSurfacePropertiesKHR::currentExtent to indicate the size of the platform surface is undefined?

RESOLVED: Yes.  On some platforms (Wayland, for example), the surface
size is defined by the images presented to it rather than the other
way around.

16) Should there be a special value for VkSurfacePropertiesKHR::maxImageExtent to indicate there is no practical limit on the surface size?

RESOLVED: No.  It seems unlikely such a system would exist.  0 could
be used to indicate the platform places no limits on the extents
beyond those imposed by Vulkan for normal images, but this query could
just as easily return those same limits, so a special "unlimited"
value doesn't seem useful for this field.

17) How should surface rotation and mirroring be exposed to applications? How do they specify rotation and mirroring transforms applied prior to presentation?

RESOLVED: Applications can query both the supported and current
transforms of a surface.  Both are specified relative to the device's
"natural" display rotation and direction.  The supported transforms
indicates which orientations the presentation engine accepts images
in.  For example, a presentation engine that does not support
transforming surfaces as part of presentation, and which is presenting
to a surface that is displayed with a 90-degree rotation, would return
only one supported transform bit: VK_SURFACE_TRANSFORM_ROT90_BIT_KHR.
Applications must transform their rendering by the transform they
specify when creating the swapchain in preTransform field.

18) Can surfaces ever not support VK_MIRROR_NONE? Can they support vertical and horizontal mirroring simultaneously? Relatedly, should VK_MIRROR_NONE[_BIT] be zero, or bit one, and should applications be allowed to specify multiple pre and current mirror transform bits, or exactly one?

RESOLVED: Since some platforms may not support presenting with a
transform other than the native window's current transform, and
pre-rotation/mirroring are specified relative to the device's
natural rotation and direction, rather than relative to the surface's
current rotation and direction, it is necessary to express lack of
support for no mirroring.  To allow this, the MIRROR_NONE enum must
occupy a bit in the flags.  Since MIRROR_NONE must be a bit in the
bitfield rather than a bitfield with no values set, allowing more
than one bit to be set in the bitfield would make it possible to
describe undefined transforms such as VK_MIRROR_NONE_BIT |
VK_MIRROR_HORIZONTAL_BIT, or a transform that includes both "no
mirroring" and "horizontal mirroring simultaneously.  Therefore, it
is desireable to allow specifying all supported mirroring transforms
using only one bit.  The question then becomes, should there be a
VK_MIRROR_HORIZONTAL_AND_VERTICAL_BIT to represent a simultaneous
horizontal and vertical mirror transform?  However, such a transform
is equivalent to a 180 degree rotation, so presentation engines and
applications that wish to support or use such a transform can express
it through rotation instead.  Therefore, 3 exclusive bits are
sufficient to express all needed mirroring transforms.

19) Should support for sRGB be required?

RESOLVED: In the advent of UHD and HDR display devices, proper
colorspace information is vital to the display pipeline
represented by the swapchain.  The app can discover the
supported format/colorspace pairs and select a pair most suited
to its rendering needs.  Currently only the sRGB colorspace is
supported, future extensions may provide support for more
colorspaces.  See issues 23) and 24).

20) Is there a mechanism to modify or replace an existing swapchain with one targeting the same surface?

RESOLVED: Yes.  This is described above in the text.

21) Should there be a way to set pre-rotation and mirroring using native APIs when presenting using a Vulkan swapchain?

RESOLVED: Yes.  The transforms that can be expressed in this extension
are a subset of those possible on native platforms.  If a platform
exposes a method to specify the transform of presented images for a
given surface using native methods and exposes more transforms or
other properties for surfaces than Vulkan supports, it might be
impossible, difficult, or inconvenient to set some of those properties
using Vulkan KHR extensions and some using the native interfaces.  To
avoid overwriting properties set using native commands when presenting
using a Vulkan swapchain, the application can set the pre-transform to
"inherit", in which case the current native properties will be used, or
if none are available, a platform-specific default will be used.
Platforms that do not specify a reasonable default or do not provide
native mechanisms to specify such transforms should not include the
inherit bits in the supportedTransform field they return in
VkSurfacePropertiesKHR.

22) Should the content of presentable images be clipped by objects obscuring their target surface?

RESOLVED: Applications can choose which behavior they prefer.  Allowing
the content to be clipped could enable more optimal presentation
methods on some platforms, but some applications might rely on the
content of presentable images to perform techniques such as partial
updates or motion blurs.

23) What is the purpose of specifying a VkColorspaceKHR along with VkFormat when creating a swapchain?

RESOLVED: While Vulkan itself is colorspace agnostic (e.g. even the
meaning of R, G, B and A can be freely defined by the rendering
application), the swapchain eventually will have to present the
images on a display device with specific color reproduction
characteristics.  If any colorspace transformations are
necessary before an image can be displayed, the colorspace of
the presented image must be known to the swapchain.  A swapchain
will only support a restricted set of color format and -space
pairs.  This set can be discovered via vkGetSurfaceInfoKHR.  As
it can be expected that most display devices support the sRGB
colorspace, at least one format/colorspace pair has to be
exposed, where colorspace is VK_COLOR_SPACE_SRGB_NONLINEAR.

24) How are sRGB formats and the sRGB colorspace related?

RESOLVED: While Vulkan exposes a number of SRGB texture formats, using
such formats does not guarantee working in a specific
colorspace.  It merely means that the hardware can directly
support applying the non-linear transfer functions defined by
the sRGB standard colorspace when reading from or writing to
images of that these formats.  Still, it is unlikely that a
swapchain will expose a _SRGB format along with any colorspace
other than VK_COLOR_SPACE_SRGB_NONLINEAR.
On the other hand, non-_SRGB formats will be very likely
exposed in pair with a SRGB colorspace.  This means, the
hardware will not apply any transfer function when reading
from or writing to such images, yet they will still be
presented on a device with sRGB display characteristics.
In this case the application is responsible for applying the
transfer function, for instance by using shader math.

25) How are the lifetime of surfaces and swapchains targeting them related?

RESOLVED: A surface must outlive any swapchains targeting it.  A
VkSurfaceKHR owns the binding of the native window to the Vulkan
driver.

26) How can the client control the way the alpha channel of swap chain images is treated by the presentation engine during compositing?

RESOLVED: We should add new enum values to allow the client to
negotiate with the presentation engine on how to treat image alpha
values during the compositing process.  Since not all platforms
can practically control this through the Vulkan driver, a value of
INHERIT is provided like for surface transforms.

27) Is vkCreateSwapchainKHR() the right function to return VK_ERROR_NATIVE_WINDOW_IN_USE_KHR, or should the various platform- specific VkSurface factory functions catch this error earlier?

RESOLVED: For most platforms, the VkSurface structure is a simple
container holding the data that identifies a native window or
other object representing a surface on a particular platform.  For
the surface factory functions to return this error, they would
likely need to register a reference on the native objects with
the native display server some how, and ensure no other such
references exist.  Surfaces were not intended to be that heavy-
weight.
Swapchains are intended to be the objects that directly manipulate
native windows and communicate with the native presentation
mechanisms.  Swapchains will already need to communicate with the
native display server to negotiate allocation and/or presentation of
presentable images for a native surface.  Therefore, it makes more
sense for swapchain creation to be the point at which native object
exclusivity is enforced.  Platforms may choose to enforce further
restrictions on the number of VkSurface objects that may be created
for the same native window if such a requirement makes sense on a
particular platform, but a global requirement is only sensible at the
swapchain level.

E.3.7. Examples

Example 1

Create a swapchain for a surface on a particular instance of a native platform.

    extern VkDevice device;
    extern VkSurfaceKHR surface;

    // Must call extension functions through a function pointer:
    PFN_vkGetSurfacePropertiesKHR pfnGetSurfacePropertiesKHR = (PFN_vkGetSurfacePropertiesKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkGetSurfaceInfoKHR");
    PFN_vkGetSurfaceFormatsKHR pfnGetSurfaceFormatsKHR = (PFN_vkGetSurfaceFormatsKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkGetSurfaceFormatsKHR");
    PFN_vkGetSurfacePresentModesKHR pfnGetSurfacePresentModesKHR = (PFN_vkGetSurfacePresentModesKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkGetSurfacePresentModesKHR");
    PFN_vkCreateSwapchainKHR pfnCreateSwapchainKHR = (PFN_vkCreateSwapchainKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkCreateSwapchainKHR");

    // Check the surface properties and formats
    VkSurfacePropertiesKHR surfaceProperties;
    pfnGetSurfacePropertiesKHR(device, surface, &surfaceProperties);

    uint32_t formatCount;
    pfnGetSurfaceFormatsKHR(device, surface, &formatCount, NULL);

    VkSurfaceFormatKHR* pSurfFormats = (VkSurfaceFormatKHR*)malloc(formatCount * sizeof(VkSurfaceFormatKHR));
    pfnGetSurfaceFormatsKHR(device, surface, &formatCount, pSurfFormats);

    uint32_t presentModeCount;
    pfnGetSurfacePresentModesKHR(device, surface, &presentModeCount, NULL);

    VkPresentModeKHR* pPresentModes = (VkPresentModeKHR*)malloc(presentModeCount * sizeof(VkPresentModeKHR));
    pfnGetSurfacePresentModesKHR(device, surface, &presentModeCount, pPresentModes);

    VkExtent2D swapchainExtent;
    // width and height are either both -1, or both not -1.
    if (surfaceProperties.currentExtent.width == -1)
    {
        // If the surface size is undefined, the size is set to
        // the size of the images requested, which must fit within the minimum
        // and maximum values.
        swapchainExtent.width = 320;
        swapchainExtent.height = 320;

        if (swapchainExtent.width < surfaceProperties.minImageExtent.width)
            swapchainExtent.width = surfaceProperties.minImageExtent.width;
        else if (swapchainExtent.width > surfaceProperties.maxImageExtent.width)
            swapchainExtent.width = surfaceProperties.maxImageExtent.width;

        if (swapchainExtent.height < surfaceProperties.minImageExtent.height)
            swapchainExtent.height = surfaceProperties.minImageExtent.height;
        else if (swapchainExtent.height > surfaceProperties.maxImageExtent.height)
            swapchainExtent.height = surfaceProperties.maxImageExtent.height;
    }
    else
    {
        // If the surface size is defined, the swapchain size must match
        swapchainExtent = surfaceProperties.currentExtent;
    }

    // Application desires to own 2 images at a time (still allowing
    // 'minImageCount' images to be owned by the presentation engine).
    uint32_t desiredNumberOfSwapchainImages = surfaceProperties.minImageCount + 2;
    if ((surfaceProperties.maxImageCount > 0) &&
        (desiredNumberOfSwapchainImages > surfaceProperties.maxImageCount))
    {
        // Application must settle for fewer images than desired:
        desiredNumberOfSwapchainImages = surfaceProperties.maxImageCount;
    }

    VkFormat swapchainFormat;
    // If the format list includes just one entry of VK_FORMAT_UNDEFINED,
    // the surface has no preferred format.  Otherwise, at least one
    // supported format will be returned (assuming that the
    // vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceSupportKHR function, in the
    // VK_KHR_surface extension returned support for the surface).
    if ((formatCount == 1) && (pSurfFormats[0].format == VK_FORMAT_UNDEFINED))
        swapchainFormat = VK_FORMAT_R8G8B8_UNORM;
    else
    {
        assert(formatCount >= 1);
        swapchainFormat = pSurfFormats[0].format;
    }
    VkColorSpaceKHR swapchainColorSpace = pSurfFormats[0].colorSpace;

    // If mailbox mode is available, use it, as it is the lowest-latency non-
    // tearing mode.  If not, fall back to FIFO which is always available.
    VkPresentModeKHR swapchainPresentMode = VK_PRESENT_MODE_FIFO_KHR;
    for (size_t i = 0; i < presentModeCount; ++i)
        if (pPresentModes[i] == VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR)
        {
            swapchainPresentMode = VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR;
            break;
        }

    const VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR createInfo =
    {
        VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SWAPCHAIN_CREATE_INFO_KHR,    // sType
        NULL,                                           // pNext
        0,                                              // flags
        surface,                                        // surface
        desiredNumberOfSwapchainImages,                 // minImageCount
        swapchainFormat,                                // imageFormat
        swapchainColorSpace,                            // imageColorSpace
        swapchainExtent,                                // imageExtent
        1,                                              // imageArrayLayers
        VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,            // imageUsage
        VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE,                      // imageSharingMode
        0,                                              // queueFamilyIndexCount
        NULL,                                           // pQueueFamilyIndices
        surfaceProperties.currentTransform,             // preTransform
        VK_COMPOSITE_ALPHA_INHERIT_BIT_KHR,             // compositeAlpha
        swapchainPresentMode,                           // presentMode
        VK_TRUE,                                        // clipped
        VK_NULL_HANDLE                                  // oldSwapchain
    };

    VkSwapchainKHR swapchain;
    pfnCreateSwapchainKHR(device, &createInfo, NULL, &swapchain);

Example 2

Obtaining the persistent images of a swapchain

    // Must call extension functions through a function pointer:
    PFN_vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR pfnGetSwapchainImagesKHR = (PFN_vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR");

    uint32_t swapchainImageCount;
    pfnGetSwapchainImagesKHR(device, swapchain, &swapchainImageCount, NULL);

    VkImage* pSwapchainImages = (VkImage*)malloc(swapchainImageCount * sizeof(VkImage));
    pfnGetSwapchainImagesKHR(device, swapchain, &swapchainImageCount, pSwapchainImages);

Example 3

Simple rendering and presenting using separate graphics and present queues.

    // Must call extension functions through a function pointer:
    PFN_vkAcquireNextImageKHR pfnAcquireNextImageKHR = (PFN_vkAcquireNextImageKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkAcquireNextImageKHR");
    PFN_vkQueuePresentKHR pfnQueuePresentKHR = (PFN_vkQueuePresentKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkQueuePresentKHR");

    // Construct command buffers rendering to the presentable images
    VkCmdBuffer cmdBuffers[swapchainImageCount];
    VkImageView views[swapchainImageCount];
    extern VkCmdBufferBeginInfo beginInfo;
    extern uint32_t graphicsQueueFamilyIndex, presentQueueFamilyIndex;

    for (size_t i = 0; i < swapchainImageCount; ++i)
    {
        const VkImageViewCreateInfo viewInfo =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_IMAGE_VIEW_CREATE_INFO,   // sType
            NULL,                                       // pNext
            0,                                          // flags
            pSwapchainImages[i],                        // image
            VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D,                      // viewType
            swapchainFormat,                            // format
            ...
        };
        vkCreateImageView(device, &viewInfo, &views[i]);

        ...

        vkBeginCommandBuffer(cmdBuffers[i], &beginInfo);

        // Need to transition image from presentable state before being able to render
        const VkImageMemoryBarrier acquireImageBarrier =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_IMAGE_MEMORY_BARRIER,     // sType
            NULL,                                       // pNext
            VK_ACCESS_MEMORY_READ_BIT,                  // srcAccessMask
            VK_ACCESS_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_WRITE_BIT,       // dstAccessMask
            VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SRC_KHR,            // oldLayout
            VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL,   // newLayout
            presentQueueFamilyIndex,                    // srcQueueFamilyIndex
            graphicsQueueFamilyIndex,                   // dstQueueFamilyIndex
            pSwapchainImages[i].image,                  // image
            ...
        };

        vkCmdPipelineBarrier(
            cmdBuffers[i],
            VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT,
            VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT,
            VK_FALSE,
            1,
            &acquireImageBarrier)

        // ... Render to views[i] ...

        // Need to transition image into presentable state before being able to present
        const VkImageMemoryBarrier presentImageBarrier =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_IMAGE_MEMORY_BARRIER,     // sType
            NULL,                                       // pNext
            VK_ACCESS_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_WRITE_BIT,       // srcAccessMask
            VK_ACCESS_MEMORY_READ_BIT,                  // dstAccessMask
            VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL,   // oldLayout
            VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SRC_KHR,            // newLayout
            graphicsQueueFamilyIndex,                   // srcQueueFamilyIndex
            presentQueueFamilyIndex,                    // dstQueueFamilyIndex
            pSwapchainImages[i].image,                  // image
            ...
        };

        vkCmdPipelineBarrier(
            cmdBuffers[i],
            VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT,
            VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_BOTTOM_OF_PIPE_BIT,
            VK_FALSE,
            1,
            &presentImageBarrier);

        ...

        vkEndCommandBuffer(cmdBuffers[i]);
    }

    const VkSemaphoreCreateInfo semaphoreCreateInfo =
    {
        VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SEMAPHORE_CREATE_INFO,    // sType
        NULL,                                       // pNext
        0                                           // flags
    };

    VkSemaphore imageAcquiredSemaphore;
    vkCreateSemaphore(device,
                      &semaphoreCreateInfo,
                      &imageAcquiredSemaphore);

    VkSemaphore renderingCompleteSemaphore;
    vkCreateSemaphore(device,
                      &semaphoreCreateInfo,
                      &renderingCompleteSemaphore);

    VkResult result;
    do
    {
        uint32_t imageIndex = UINT32_MAX;

        // Get the next available swapchain image
        result = pfnAcquireNextImageKHR(
            device,
            swapchain,
            UINT64_MAX,
            imageAcquiredSemaphore,
            VK_NULL_HANDLE,
            &imageIndex);

        // Swapchain cannot be used for presentation if failed to acquired new image.
        if (result < 0)
            break;

        // Submit rendering work to the graphics queue
        const VkPipelineStageFlags waitDstStageMask = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT;
        const VkSubmitInfo submitInfo =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SUBMIT_INFO,          // sType
            NULL,                                   // pNext
            1,                                      // waitSemaphoreCount
            &imageAcquiredSemaphore,                // pWaitSemaphores
            &waitDstStageMask,                      // pWaitDstStageMasks
            1,                                      // commandBufferCount
            &cmdBuffers[imageIndex],                // pCommandBuffers
            1,                                      // signalSemaphoreCount
            &renderingCompleteSemaphore             // pSignalSemaphores
        };
        vkQueueSubmit(graphicsQueue, 1, &submitInfo, VK_NULL_HANDLE);

        // Submit present operation to present queue
        const VkPresentInfoKHR presentInfo =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PRESENT_INFO_KHR,     // sType
            NULL,                                   // pNext
            1,                                      // waitSemaphoreCount
            &renderingCompleteSemaphore,            // pWaitSemaphores
            1,                                      // swapchainCount
            &swapchain,                             // pSwapchains
            &imageIndex,                            // pImageIndices
            NULL                                    // pResults
        };

        result = pfnQueuePresentKHR(presentQueue, &presentInfo);
    } while (result >= 0);

Example 4

Handle VK_ERROR_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR by recreating the swapchain and VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR by checking whether recreation is needed.

    extern VkDevice device;
    extern VkQueue presentQueue;
    extern VkSurfaceKHR surface;

    // Contains code to build the application's reusable command buffers.
    extern void CreateCommandBuffers(VkDevice device,
                                     const VkImage* swapchainImages);

    // Returns non-zero if the application considers the swapchain out
    // of date even though it is still compatible with the platform
    // surface it is targeting.
    extern int MustRecreateSwapchain(VkDevice device,
                                     VkSwapchainKHR swapchain,
                                     VkSurfaceKHR surface);

    PFN_vkGetSurfacePropertiesKHR pfnGetSurfacePropertiesKHR;
    PFN_vkGetSurfaceFormatsKHR pfnGetSurfaceFormatsKHR;
    PFN_vkGetSurfacePresentModesKHR pfnGetSurfacePresentModesKHR;
    PFN_vkCreateSwapchainKHR pfnCreateSwapchainKHR;
    PFN_vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR pfnGetSwapchainImagesKHR;
    PFN_vkAcquireNextImageKHR pfnAcquireNextImageKHR;
    PFN_vkDestroySwapchainKHR pfnDestroySwapchainKHR;
    PFN_vkQueuePresentKHR pfnQueuePresentKHR;

    void initFuncs(void)
    {
        // Must call extension functions through a function pointer:
        pfnGetSurfacePropertiesKHR = (PFN_vkGetSurfacePropertiesKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkGetSurfaceInfoKHR");
        pfnGetSurfaceFormatsKHR = (PFN_vkGetSurfaceFormatsKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkGetSurfaceFormatsKHR");
        pfnGetSurfacePresentModesKHR = (PFN_vkGetSurfacePresentModesKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkGetSurfacePresentModesKHR");
        pfnCreateSwapchainKHR = (PFN_vkCreateSwapchainKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkCreateSwapchainKHR");
        pfnGetSwapchainImagesKHR = (PFN_vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR");
        pfnAcquireNextImageKHR = (PFN_vkAcquireNextImageKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkAcquireNextImageKHR");
        pfnDestroySwapchainKHR = (PFN_vkDestroySwapchainKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkDestroySwapchainKHR");
        pfnQueuePresentKHR = (PFN_vkQueuePresentKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkQueuePresentKHR");
    }

    void CreateSwapchain(VkDevice device,
                         VkSurfaceKHR surface,
                         VkSwapchainKHR oldSwapchain,
                         VkSwapchainKHR* pSwapchain)
    {
        // Check the surface properties and formats
        VkSurfacePropertiesKHR surfaceProperties;
        pfnGetSurfacePropertiesKHR(device, surface, &surfaceProperties);

        uint32_t formatCount;
        pfnGetSurfaceFormatsKHR(device, surface, &formatCount, NULL);

        VkSurfaceFormatKHR* pSurfFormats = (VkSurfaceFormatKHR*)malloc(formatCount * sizeof(VkSurfaceFormatKHR));
        pfnGetSurfaceFormatsKHR(device, surface, &formatCount, pSurfFormats);

        uint32_t presentModeCount;
        pfnGetSurfacePresentModesKHR(device, surface, &presentModeCount, NULL);

        VkPresentModeKHR* pPresentModes = (VkPresentModeKHR*)malloc(presentModeCount * sizeof(VkPresentModeKHR));
        pfnGetSurfacePresentModesKHR(device, surface, &presentModeCount, pPresentModes);

        VkExtent2D swapchainExtent;
        // width and height are either both -1, or both not -1.
        if (surfaceProperties.currentExtent.width == -1)
        {
            // If the surface size is undefined, the size is set to
            // the size of the images requested, which must fit within the minimum
            // and maximum values.
            swapchainExtent.width = 320;
            swapchainExtent.height = 320;

            if (swapchainExtent.width < surfaceProperties.minImageExtent.width)
                swapchainExtent.width = surfaceProperties.minImageExtent.width;
            else if (swapchainExtent.width > surfaceProperties.maxImageExtent.width)
                swapchainExtent.width = surfaceProperties.maxImageExtent.width;

            if (swapchainExtent.height < surfaceProperties.minImageExtent.height)
                swapchainExtent.height = surfaceProperties.minImageExtent.height;
            else if (swapchainExtent.height > surfaceProperties.maxImageExtent.height)
                swapchainExtent.height = surfaceProperties.maxImageExtent.height;
        }
        else
        {
            // If the surface size is defined, the swapchain size must match
            swapchainExtent = surfaceProperties.currentExtent;
        }

        // Application desires to own 2 images at a time (still allowing
        // 'minImageCount' images to be owned by the presentation engine).
        uint32_t desiredNumberOfSwapchainImages = surfaceProperties.minImageCount + 2;
        if ((surfaceProperties.maxImageCount > 0) &&
            (desiredNumberOfSwapchainImages > surfaceProperties.maxImageCount))
        {
            // Application must settle for fewer images than desired:
            desiredNumberOfSwapchainImages = surfaceProperties.maxImageCount;
        }

        VkFormat swapchainFormat;
        // If the format list includes just one entry of VK_FORMAT_UNDEFINED,
        // the surface has no preferred format.  Otherwise, at least one
        // supported format will be returned (assuming that the
        // vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceSupportKHR function, in the
        // VK_KHR_surface extension returned support for the surface).
        if ((formatCount == 1) && (pSurfFormats[0].format == VK_FORMAT_UNDEFINED))
            swapchainFormat = VK_FORMAT_R8G8B8_UNORM;
        else
        {
            assert(formatCount >= 1);
            swapchainFormat = pSurfFormats[0].format;
        }
        VkColorSpaceKHR swapchainColorSpace = pSurfFormats[0].colorSpace;

        // If mailbox mode is available, use it, as it is the lowest-latency non-
        // tearing mode.  If not, fall back to FIFO which is always available.
        VkPresentModeKHR swapchainPresentMode = VK_PRESENT_MODE_FIFO_KHR;
        for (size_t i = 0; i < presentModeCount; ++i)
            if (pPresentModes[i] == VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR) {
                swapchainPresentMode = VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR;
                break;
            }

        const VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR createInfo =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SWAPCHAIN_CREATE_INFO_KHR,  // sType
            NULL,                                         // pNext
            0,                                            // flags
            surface,                                      // surface
            desiredNumberOfSwapchainImages,               // minImageCount
            swapchainFormat,                              // imageFormat
            swapchainColorSpace,                          // imageColorSpace
            swapchainExtent,                              // imageExtent
            1,                                            // imageArrayLayers
            VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,          // imageUsage
            VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE,                    // imageSharingMode
            0,                                            // queueFamilyIndexCount
            NULL,                                         // pQueueFamilyIndices
            surfaceProperties.currentTransform,           // preTransform
            VK_COMPOSITE_ALPHA_INHERIT_BIT_KHR,           // compositeAlpha
            swapchainPresentMode,                         // presentMode
            VK_TRUE,                                      // clipped

            // If the caller specified an existing swapchain, replace it with the
            // new swapchain being created here.  This will allow a seamless
            // transition between the old and new swapchains on platforms that
            // support it.
            oldSwapchain                                  // oldSwapchain
        };

        pfnCreateSwapchainKHR(device, &createInfo, NULL, pSwapchain);

        // Clean up the old swapchain, if it exists.
        // Note: destroying the swapchain also cleans up all its associated
        // presentable images once the platform is done with them.
        if (oldSwapchain != VK_NULL_HANDLE)
        {
            pfnDestroySwapchainKHR(device, oldSwapchain, NULL);
        }
    }

    void mainLoop(void)
    {
        VkSwapchainKHR swapchain = VK_NULL_HANDLE;

        const VkSemaphoreCreateInfo semaphoreCreateInfo =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SEMAPHORE_CREATE_INFO,    // sType
            NULL,                                       // pNext
            0                                           // flags
        };

        VkSemaphore imageAcquiredSemaphore;
        vkCreateSemaphore(device,
                          &semaphoreCreateInfo,
                          &imageAcquiredSemaphore);

        VkSemaphore renderingCompleteSemaphore;
        vkCreateSemaphore(device,
                          &semaphoreCreateInfo,
                          &renderingCompleteSemaphore);

        while (1)
        {
            VkResult result;

            CreateSwapchain(device, surface, swapchain, &swapchain);

            uint32_t swapchainImageCount;
            pfnGetSwapchainImagesKHR(device, swapchain, &swapchainImageCount, NULL);

            VkImage* pSwapchainImages = (VkImage*)malloc(swapchainImageCount * sizeof(VkImage));
            pfnGetSwapchainImagesKHR(device, swapchain, &swapchainImageCount, pSwapchainImages);

            CreateCommandBuffers(device, pSwapchainImages);
            free(pSwapchainImages);

            while (1)
            {
                uint32_t imageIndex;

                // Get the next available swapchain image
                result = pfnAcquireNextImageKHR(
                    device,
                    swapchain,
                    UINT64_MAX,
                    imageAcquiredSemaphore,
                    VK_NULL_HANDLE,
                    &imageIndex);

                if (result == VK_ERROR_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR)
                {
                    // swapchain is out of date.  Needs to be recreated for
                    // defined results.
                    break;
                }
                else if (result == VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR)
                {
                    // Ignore this result here.  If any expensive pre-processing
                    // work has already been done for this frame, it is likely
                    // in the application's interest to continue processing this
                    // frame with the current swapchain rather than recreate it
                    // and waste the pre-processing work.
                }
                else if (result < 0)
                {
                    // Unhandled error.  Abort.
                    return;
                }

                // Submit rendering work to the graphics queue
                const VkPipelineStageFlags waitDstStageMask = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT;
                const VkSubmitInfo submitInfo =
                {
                    VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SUBMIT_INFO,          // sType
                    NULL,                                   // pNext
                    1,                                      // waitSemaphoreCount
                    &imageAcquiredSemaphore,                // pWaitSemaphores
                    &waitDstStageMask,                      // pWaitDstStageMasks
                    1,                                      // commandBufferCount
                    &cmdBuffers[imageIndex],                // pCommandBuffers
                    1,                                      // signalSemaphoreCount
                    &renderingCompleteSemaphore             // pSignalSemaphores
                };
                vkQueueSubmit(graphicsQueue, 1, &submitInfo, VK_NULL_HANDLE);

                // Submit present operation to present queue
                const VkPresentInfoKHR presentInfo =
                {
                    VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PRESENT_INFO_KHR,     // sType
                    NULL,                                   // pNext
                    1,                                      // waitSemaphoreCount
                    &renderingCompleteSemaphore,            // pWaitSemaphores
                    1,                                      // swapchainCount
                    &swapchain,                             // pSwapchains
                    &imageIndex,                            // pImageIndices
                    NULL                                    // pResults
                };

                result = pfnQueuePresentKHR(presentQueue, &presentInfo);

                if (result == VK_ERROR_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR)
                {
                    // The swapchain is out of date, and must be recreated for
                    // defined results.
                    break;
                }
                else if (result == VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR)
                {
                    // Something has changed about the native surface since the
                    // swapchain was created, but it is still compatible with the
                    // swapchain.  The app must choose whether it wants to create
                    // a more up to date swapchain before it begins processing
                    // the next frame.
                    if (MustRecreateSwapchain(device, swapchain, surface))
                        break;
                }
                else if (result < 0)
                {
                    // Unhandled error.  Abort.
                    return;
                }
            }
        }
    }

Example 5

Meter a CPU thread based on presentation rate. Note this will only limit the thread to the actual presentation rate when using VK_PRESENT_MODE_FIFO_KHR. When using VK_PRESENT_MODE_IMMEDIATE_KHR, presentation rate will be limited only by rendering rate, so this example will be equivalent to waiting on a command buffer fence. When using VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR, some presented images may be skipped if a newer image is available by the time the presentation target is ready to process a new frame, so this code would again be limited only by the rendering rate. Applications using mailbox mode should use some other mechanism to meter their rendering, and it is assumed applications using immediate mode have no desire to limit the rate of their rendering based on presentation rate.

    extern void CreateSemAndFences(VkDevice device, VkSemaphore sem, VkFence *fences, const int maxOutstandingPresents);
    extern void GenFrameCmdBuffer(VkCmdbuffer cmdBuffer);

    extern VkDevice device;
    extern VkQueue queue;
    extern VkCmdBuffer cmdBuffer;
    extern VkSwapchain fifoModeSwapchain;
    extern numSwapchainImages;

    // Must call extension functions through a function pointer:
    PFN_vkAcquireNextImageKHR pfnAcquireNextImageKHR = (PFN_vkAcquireNextImageKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkAcquireNextImageKHR");
    PFN_vkQueuePresentKHR pfnQueuePresentKHR = (PFN_vkQueuePresentKHR)vkGetDeviceProcAddr(device, "vkQueuePresentKHR");

    // Allow a maximum of two outstanding presentation operations.
    static const int FRAME_LAG = 2

    VkPresentInfoKHR presentInfo;
    const VkSemaphoreCreateInfo semaphoreCreateInfo =
    {
        VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SEMAPHORE_CREATE_INFO,    // sType
        NULL,                                       // pNext
        0                                           // flags
    };

    VkSemaphore imageAcquiredSemaphore;
    vkCreateSemaphore(device,
                      &semaphoreCreateInfo,
                      &imageAcquiredSemaphore);

    VkSemaphore renderingCompleteSemaphore;
    vkCreateSemaphore(device,
                      &semaphoreCreateInfo,
                      &renderingCompleteSemaphore);

    VkFence fences[FRAME_LAG];
    bool fencesInited[FRAME_LAG];
    int frameIdx = 0;
    int imageIdx = 0;
    int waitFrame;

    CreateFences(device, fences, FRAME_LAG);

    for (int i = 0; i < FRAME_LAG; ++i)
        fencesInited[i] = false;

    while (1) {
        if (fencesInited[frameIdx])
        {
            // Ensure no more than FRAME_LAG presentations are outstanding
            vkWaitForFences(device, 1, &fences[frameIdx], VK_TRUE, UINT64_MAX);
            vkResetFences(device, 1, &fences[frameIdx]);
        }

        pfnAcquireNextImageKHR(
            device,
            fifoSwapchain,
            UINT64_MAX,
            imageAcquiredSemaphore,
            fences[frameIdx],
            &imageIdx);

        fencesInited[frameIdx] = true;

        // Generate a command buffer for the current frame.
        GenFrameCmdBuffer(cmdBuffer);

        // Submit rendering work to the graphics queue
        const VkPipelineStageFlags waitDstStageMask = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT;
        const VkSubmitInfo submitInfo =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SUBMIT_INFO,          // sType
            NULL,                                   // pNext
            1,                                      // waitSemaphoreCount
            &imageAcquiredSemaphore,                // pWaitSemaphores
            &waitDstStageMask,                      // pWaitDstStageMasks
            1,                                      // commandBufferCount
            &cmdBuffer,                             // pCommandBuffers
            1,                                      // signalSemaphoreCount
            &renderingCompleteSemaphore             // pSignalSemaphores
        };
        vkQueueSubmit(queue, 1, &submitInfo, VK_NULL_HANDLE);

        // Submit present operation to present queue
        const VkPresentInfoKHR presentInfo =
        {
            VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PRESENT_INFO_KHR,     // sType
            NULL,                                   // pNext
            1,                                      // waitSemaphoreCount
            &renderingCompleteSemaphore,            // pWaitSemaphores
            1,                                      // swapchainCount
            &fifoSwapchain,                         // pSwapchains
            &imageIdx,                              // pImageIndices
            NULL                                    // pResults
        };

        result = pfnQueuePresentKHR(queue, &presentInfo);

        frameIdx += 1;
        frameIdx %= FRAME_LAG;
    }

E.3.8. Version History

  • Revision 1, 2015-05-20 (James Jones)

    • Initial draft, based on LunarG KHR spec, other KHR specs, patches attached to bugs.
  • Revision 2, 2015-05-22 (Ian Elliott)

    • Made many agreed-upon changes from 2015-05-21 KHR TSG meeting. This includes using only a queue for presentation, and having an explict function to acquire the next image.
    • Fixed typos and other minor mistakes.
  • Revision 3, 2015-05-26 (Ian Elliott)

    • Improved the Description section.
    • Added or resolved issues that were found in improving the Description. For example, pSurfaceDescription is used consistently, instead of sometimes using pSurface.
  • Revision 4, 2015-05-27 (James Jones)

    • Fixed some grammatical errors and typos
    • Filled in the description of imageUseFlags when creating a swapchain.
    • Added a description of swapInterval.
    • Replaced the paragraph describing the order of operations on a queue for image ownership and presentation.
  • Revision 5, 2015-05-27 (James Jones)

    • Imported relevant issues from the (abandoned) vk_wsi_persistent_swapchain_images extension.
    • Added issues 6 and 7, regarding behavior of the acquire next image and present commands with respect to queues.
    • Updated spec language and examples to align with proposed resolutions to issues 6 and 7.
  • Revision 6, 2015-05-27 (James Jones)

    • Added issue 8, regarding atomic presentation of multiple swapchains
    • Updated spec language and examples to align with proposed resolution to issue 8.
  • Revision 7, 2015-05-27 (James Jones)

    • Fixed compilation errors in example code, and made related spec fixes.
  • Revision 8, 2015-05-27 (James Jones)

    • Added issue 9, and the related VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR result code.
    • Renamed VK_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR to VK_ERROR_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR.
  • Revision 9, 2015-05-27 (James Jones)

    • Added inline proposed resolutions (marked with [JRJ]) to some XXX questions/issues. These should be moved to the issues section in a subsequent update if the proposals are adopted.
  • Revision 10, 2015-05-28 (James Jones)

    • Converted vkAcquireNextImageKHR back to a non-queue operation that uses a VkSemaphore object for explicit synchronization.
    • Added issue 10 to determine whether vkAcquireNextImageKHR generates or returns semaphores, or whether it operates on a semaphore provided by the application.
  • Revision 11, 2015-05-28 (James Jones)

    • Marked issues 6, 7, and 8 resolved.
    • Renamed VkSurfaceCapabilityPropertiesKHR to VkSurfacePropertiesKHR to better convey the mutable nature of the info it contains.
  • Revision 12, 2015-05-28 (James Jones)

    • Added issue 11 with a proposed resolution, and the related issue 12.
    • Updated various sections of the spec to match the proposed resolution to issue 11.
  • Revision 13, 2015-06-01 (James Jones)

    • Moved some structures to VK_EXT_KHR_swap_chain to resolve the spec’s issues 1 and 2.
  • Revision 14, 2015-06-01 (James Jones)

    • Added code for example 4 demonstrating how an application might make use of the two different present and acquire next image KHR result codes.
    • Added issue 13.
  • Revision 15, 2015-06-01 (James Jones)

    • Added issues 14 - 16 and related spec language.
    • Fixed some spelling errors.
    • Added language describing the meaningful return values for vkAcquireNextImageKHR and vkQueuePresentKHR.
  • Revision 16, 2015-06-02 (James Jones)

    • Added issues 17 and 18, as well as related spec language.
    • Removed some erroneous text added by mistake in the last upate.
  • Revision 17, 2015-06-15 (Ian Elliott)

    • Changed special value from "-1" to "0" so that the data types can be unsigned.
  • Revision 18, 2015-06-15 (Ian Elliott)

    • Clarified the values of VkSurfacePropertiesKHR::minImageCount and the timeout parameter of the vkAcquireNextImageKHR function.
  • Revision 19, 2015-06-17 (James Jones)

    • Misc. cleanup. Removed resolved inline issues and fixed typos.
    • Fixed clarification of VkSurfacePropertiesKHR::minImageCount made in version 18.
    • Added a brief "Image Ownership" definition to the list of terms used in the spec.
  • Revision 20, 2015-06-17 (James Jones)

    • Updated enum-extending values using new convention.
  • Revision 21, 2015-06-17 (James Jones)

    • Added language describing how to use VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SOURCE_KHR.
    • Cleaned up an XXX comment regarding the description of which queues vkQueuePresentKHR can be used on.
  • Revision 22, 2015-06-17 (James Jones)

    • Rebased on Vulkan API version 126.
  • Revision 23, 2015-06-18 (James Jones)

    • Updated language for issue 12 to read as a proposed resolution.
    • Marked issues 11, 12, 13, 16, and 17 resolved.
    • Temporarily added links to the relevant bugs under the remaining unresolved issues.
    • Added issues 19 and 20 as well as proposed resolutions.
  • Revision 24, 2015-06-19 (Ian Elliott)

    • Changed special value for VkSurfacePropertiesKHR::currentExtent back to "-1" from "0". This value will never need to be unsigned, and "0" is actually a legal value.
  • Revision 25, 2015-06-23 (Ian Elliott)

    • Examples now show use of function pointers for extension functions.
    • Eliminated extraneous whitespace.
  • Revision 26, 2015-06-25 (Ian Elliott)

    • Resolved Issues 9 & 10 per KHR TSG meeting.
  • Revision 27, 2015-06-25 (James Jones)

    • Added oldSwapchain member to VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR.
  • Revision 28, 2015-06-25 (James Jones)

    • Added the "inherit" bits to the rotatation and mirroring flags and the associated issue 21.
  • Revision 29, 2015-06-25 (James Jones)

    • Added the "clipped" flag to VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR, and the associated issue 22.
    • Specified that presenting an image does not modify it.
  • Revision 30, 2015-06-25 (James Jones)

    • Added language to the spec that clarifies the behavior of vkCreateSwapchainKHR() when the oldSwapchain field of VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR is not NULL.
  • Revision 31, 2015-06-26 (Ian Elliott)

    • Example of new VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR members, "oldSwapchain" and "clipped".
    • Example of using VkSurfacePropertiesKHR::{min|max}ImageCount to set VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR::minImageCount.
    • Rename vkGetSurfaceInfoKHR()'s 4th param to "pDataSize", for consistency with other functions.
    • Add macro with C-string name of extension (just to header file).
  • Revision 32, 2015-06-26 (James Jones)

    • Minor adjustments to the language describing the behavior of "oldSwapchain"
    • Fixed the version date on my previous two updates.
  • Revision 33, 2015-06-26 (Jesse Hall)

    • Add usage flags to VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR
  • Revision 34, 2015-06-26 (Ian Elliott)

    • Rename vkQueuePresentKHR()'s 2nd param to "pPresentInfo", for consistency with other functions.
  • Revision 35, 2015-06-26 (Jason Ekstrand)

    • Merged the VkRotationFlagBitsKHR and VkMirrorFlagBitsKHR enums into a single VkSurfaceTransformFlagBitsKHR enum.
  • Revision 36, 2015-06-26 (Jason Ekstrand)

    • Added a VkSurfaceTransformKHR enum that isn’t a bitfield. Each value in VkSurfaceTransformKHR corresponds directly to one of the bits in VkSurfaceTransformFlagBitsKHR so transforming from one to the other is easy. Having a separate enum means that currentTransform and preTransform are now unambiguous by definition.
  • Revision 37, 2015-06-29 (Ian Elliott)

    • Corrected one of the signatures of vkAcquireNextImageKHR, which had the last two parameters switched from what it is elsewhere in the specification and header files.
  • Revision 38, 2015-06-30 (Ian Elliott)

    • Corrected a typo in description of the vkGetSwapchainInfoKHR() function.
    • Corrected a typo in header file comment for VkPresentInfoKHR::sType.
  • Revision 39, 2015-07-07 (Daniel Rakos)

    • Added error section describing when each error is expected to be reported.
    • Replaced bool32_t with VkBool32.
  • Revision 40, 2015-07-10 (Ian Elliott)

    • Updated to work with version 138 of the "vulkan.h" header. This includes declaring the VkSwapchainKHR type using the new VK_DEFINE_NONDISP_HANDLE macro, and no longer extending VkObjectType (which was eliminated).
  • Revision 41 2015-07-09 (Mathias Heyer)

    • Added colorspace language.
  • Revision 42, 2015-07-10 (Daniel Rakos)

    • Updated query mechanism to reflect the convention changes done in the core spec.
    • Removed "queue" from the name of VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_QUEUE_PRESENT_INFO_KHR to be consistent with the established naming convention.
    • Removed reference to the no longer existing VkObjectType enum.
  • Revision 43, 2015-07-17 (Daniel Rakos)

    • Added support for concurrent sharing of swapchain images across queue families.
    • Updated sample code based on recent changes
  • Revision 44, 2015-07-27 (Ian Elliott)

    • Noted that support for VK_PRESENT_MODE_FIFO_KHR is required. That is ICDs may optionally support IMMEDIATE and MAILBOX, but must support FIFO.
  • Revision 45, 2015-08-07 (Ian Elliott)

    • Corrected a typo in spec file (type and variable name had wrong case for the imageColorSpace member of the VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR struct).
    • Corrected a typo in header file (last parameter in PFN_vkGetSurfacePropertiesKHR was missing "KHR" at the end of type: VkSurfacePropertiesKHR).
  • Revision 46, 2015-08-20 (Ian Elliott)

    • Renamed this extension and all of its enumerations, types, functions, etc. This makes it compliant with the proposed standard for Vulkan extensions.
    • Switched from "revision" to "version", including use of the VK_MAKE_VERSION macro in the header file.
    • Made improvements to several descriptions.
    • Changed the status of several issues from PROPOSED to RESOLVED, leaving no unresolved issues.
    • Resolved several TODO’s, did miscellaneous cleanup, etc.
  • Revision 47, 2015-08-20 (Ian Elliott—porting a 2015-07-29 change from James Jones)

    • Moved the surface transform enums to VK_WSI_swapchain so they could be re-used by VK_WSI_display.
  • Revision 48, 2015-09-01 (James Jones)

    • Various minor cleanups.
  • Revision 49, 2015-09-01 (James Jones)

    • Restore single-field revision number.
  • Revision 50, 2015-09-01 (James Jones)

    • Update Example #4 to include code that illustrates how to use the oldSwapchain field.
  • Revision 51, 2015-09-01 (James Jones)

    • Fix example code compilation errors.
  • Revision 52, 2015-09-08 (Matthaeus G. Chajdas)

    • Corrected a typo.
  • Revision 53, 2015-09-10 (Alon Or-bach)

    • Removed underscore from SWAP_CHAIN left in VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SWAPCHAIN_CREATE_INFO_KHR.
  • Revision 54, 2015-09-11 (Jesse Hall)

    • Described the execution and memory coherence requirements for image transitions to and from VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SOURCE_KHR.
  • Revision 55, 2015-09-11 (Ray Smith)

    • Added errors for destroying and binding memory to presentable images
  • Revision 56, 2015-09-18 (James Jones)

    • Added fence argument to vkAcquireNextImageKHR
    • Added example of how to meter a CPU thread based on presentation rate.
  • Revision 57, 2015-09-26 (Jesse Hall)

    • Replace VkSurfaceDescriptionKHR with VkSurfaceKHR.
    • Added issue 25 with agreed resolution.
  • Revision 58, 2015-09-28 (Jesse Hall)

    • Renamed from VK_EXT_KHR_device_swapchain to VK_EXT_KHR_swapchain.
  • Revision 59, 2015-09-29 (Ian Elliott)

    • Changed vkDestroySwapchainKHR() to return void.
  • Revision 60, 2015-10-01 (Jeff Vigil)

    • Added error result VK_ERROR_SURFACE_LOST_KHR.
  • Revision 61, 2015-10-05 (Jason Ekstrand)

    • Added the VkCompositeAlpha enum and corresponding structure fields.
  • Revision 62, 2015-10-12 (Daniel Rakos)

    • Added VK_PRESENT_MODE_FIFO_RELAXED_KHR.
  • Revision 63, 2015-10-15 (Daniel Rakos)

    • Moved surface capability queries to VK_EXT_KHR_surface.
  • Revision 64, 2015-10-26 (Ian Elliott)

    • Renamed from VK_EXT_KHR_swapchain to VK_KHR_swapchain.
  • Revision 65, 2015-10-28 (Ian Elliott)

    • Added optional pResult member to VkPresentInfoKHR, so that per-swapchain results can be obtained from vkQueuePresentKHR().
  • Revision 66, 2015-11-03 (Daniel Rakos)

    • Added allocation callbacks to create and destroy functions.
    • Updated resource transition language.
    • Updated sample code.
  • Revision 67, 2015-11-10 (Jesse Hall)

    • Add reserved flags bitfield to VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR.
    • Modify naming and member ordering to match API style conventions, and so the VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR image property members mirror corresponding VkImageCreateInfo members but with an image prefix.
    • Make VkPresentInfoKHR::pResults non-const; it’s an output array parameter.
    • Make pPresentInfo parameter to vkQueuePresentKHR const.
  • Revision 68, 2016-04-05 (Ian Elliott)

    • Moved the "validity" include for vkAcquireNextImage to be in its proper place, after the prototype and list of parameters.
    • Clarified language about presentable images, including how they are acquired, when applications can and can’t use them, etc. As part of this, removed language about "ownership" of presentable images, and replaced it with more-consistent language about presentable images being "acquired" by the application.