D.1. Repeatability

The obvious and most fundamental case is repeated issuance of a series of Vulkan commands. For any given Vulkan and framebuffer state vector, and for any Vulkan command, the resulting Vulkan and framebuffer state must be identical whenever the command is executed on that initial Vulkan and framebuffer state. This repeatability requirement doesn’t apply when using shaders containing side effects (image and buffer variable stores and atomic operations), because these memory operations are not guaranteed to be processed in a defined order.

One purpose of repeatability is avoidance of visual artifacts when a doublebuffered scene is redrawn. If rendering is not repeatable, swapping between two buffers rendered with the same command sequence may result in visible changes in the image. Such false motion is distracting to the viewer. Another reason for repeatability is testability.

Repeatability, while important, is a weak requirement. Given only repeatability as a requirement, two scenes rendered with one (small) polygon changed in position might differ at every pixel. Such a difference, while within the law of repeatability, is certainly not within its spirit. Additional invariance rules are desirable to ensure useful operation.